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Any scenario where the two would give different advice as to what is morally correct?
Classical utilitarianism says to maximize pleasure; preference utilitarianism says to maximize preference satisfaction. But someone's preferences can be satisfied without their knowing it, and they might prefer an outcome they know will be much less pleasant than some alternative.
For example, a dying writer might prefer to spend his last days finishing his novel, though this will mean forgoing morphine in order to think clearly. All things being equal, the preference utilitarian will say that I ought to help the writer finish, though the classical utilitarian may say that I ought to give him the morphine.
And the literal utilitarian will say How much does he like morphine?
Is not obviously 3 the answer
Do you, my fellow philosophers, think suicide and anorexia are a result of north american consumerism and the culture of always wanting to be better, or are just diseases that people are born with?
Why don't pessimist just fucking kill themselves
solving overpopulation, their own "problem," and making the world a more tolerable place with one fell swoop
I think that this could be tied to Ulrich Beck's idea of a risk society. In that people have (near) completely wiped out the idea of natural disasters such as earthquakes and tsunamis by means of technology. And in this we have created new risks for ourselves such as obesity as an epidemic, or diseases becoming immune to vaccines and evolving to a level that could kill millions. These risks, to quote Ben Wisner, these risks involve "incalculable horrors with unknown statistical probability". These sort of attribute to a sort of society that constantly has dangers looming in the back of one's mind at all times. And I believe this affects it. Along with many of the things that others had said including consumerism.
I think you're thinking in a very curious manner. Suicide is not news, nor an american invention, nor a disease, and vaguely if at all linked to anorexia. Ending one's life at a given point where there's no reason for continuing with it is more of a privilege than a desperate move.
And no, anorexia is not something you're born with, it's a product of the development of the individual in a certain social and cultural environment.
Have you taken the UG Pill?
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Are video games (and probably TV) viable only because we live in a post-existential age where, for most, seeking to escape reality is not only feasible, but accepted and constantly improved upon vis a vis VR, better graphics, and widespread glorification of more and more extreme forms of excitement/violence in our media?
Entertainment existed since we lived in caves yo.
Video games are, for most people, a means for people to regain control over lives, even if it's virtual.
Pff. You're gonna have to explain that one.
If you're thinking what I think you're thinking, I'm just gonna have to remind you of Tetris.
Now, why would a supreme being like God even care about a bunch of stupid apes like us?
He is probably just programmer who made our universe as a test simulation and eventually abandon the project.
Evolution is merely just a function in the code of the universe. God didn't create us as he only wrote the function and the code did the rest of the work. So why would he care about some primates who became capable of recognizing his existence?
My mum has the idea that because god is so great he has the capacity to love everyone individually, thats how great he is.
pretty interesting if you think about it
Maybe He Cares because we are Part of his Energie and connected to him..
Half animal, half god.
I do not necessarily have a fear of death. I actually sometimes think it would be cool to just not exist anymore and have nothing to worry about. It's still scary, but in comparison to what has begun to plague my thoughts it's nothing.
Anxiety has made me go through a lot. I used to be comfortable in my body and familiar with it. I felt happy, safe, and at home. After all the mental pain, intense stomach-crushing fear, I am left with an unsettling feeling about everything. I feel like I am a prisoner of reality. This universe summoned my consciousness here, with no choice on my part as far as I'm aware, to live this life, during which I have had to deal with these intense and horrible sensations.
The fact that there was nothing I could do about it, that there is no one to help, that the only thing I can reach out to is other monkeys in clothes who are also trapped in their own minds (though it's probably a better place in there), is incredibly isolating.
I have felt a pure, raw fear of death and eternity. I am no longer confident in reality. I am disturbed by its existence. I have no idea how I lived so long without thinking much of it.
The fact that it's probably possible that a few million years from now a group of aliens summons my consciousness again and induces torture and pain for thousands of years with no rest, and the universe just wouldn't care in its indifferent coldness, is terrifying. I'm scared of reality in that way. The fact that every horrible nightmare we can come up with could happen someday, and there is just no way to know.
This all feels very surreal. I feel uncomfortable being a brain. I can't trust my body not to get sick and give me a slow and painful or fast and even more painful death.
What is going on? Where are all the cameras?
Do not worry too long about the Universe or the Universe may worry about you. Instead of something helpful, here are 10 anecdotes.
Your health defines only your physical existence. Be the type of person that can consider themself grounded.
When society exerts that global temperature or politics is the leading problem in the world today, find 300 ways to ignore them.
Only the Good die young can mean more than one thing. Life is a lot more about fresh air than computers.
For the incredible number of negative and polluting things in society there is nearly always a pocket of good.
Smart people don't watch TV. Movies are good, Old movies are better, and music can make you sing.
Learning is good for the soul.
Global systems run intensively Cryptographic data through wires, stations, and satellites to your home. You should never let that get you down.
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No one knows what's going on. Philosophy and mathematics are the closest thing to Platonic purity we can get. This is why I love philosophy. It's the only pure form of human activity along with mathematics that humans can do. Your soul is striving for certainty in a world of chaos. It's good to ask questions and be curious, but not pathologically so. There's a certain amount of philosophical certainty you should strive for, too much will drive you mad. Existence and consciousness seems to be too complicated for it not to have some kind of purpose, hold on to the Kantian super-sensible and the moral vocation we humans have. Start to contemplate beauty more, and the transcendentals. It will help with the eldritch form of the universe that we're automagically stuck in. The more you philosophize the more you can feel our supersensible nature more, or what Plato would call the Forms. Philosophy and math will let you grasp towards the infinite. You might enjoy Spinoza's Letter on the Infinite. A very short introduction to Spinoza that his friends read.
I'd recommend the Critique of Judgment for an analysis of beauty. Though it would help if you are already familiar with Kant. To get into the Critique of Judgment you should be familiar with the Critique of Pure Reason and the Critique of Practical Reason.
Here's a science documentary on people who had near-death experiences if you're interested in learning about what comes next. Maybe there is a purpose to it all, who knows. http://topdocumentaryfilms.com/day-i-died/
I'd also recommend Terrence Malick's filmography. He's a philosophical filmmaker who enjoys contemplating the sublime. His films might help ease you into the beauty of human nature. Tree of Life and Knight of Cups are films I'd particularly recommend for you.
Just keep philosophizing bro, you'll be fine. The questions are all that matter for now.
Death is a fabrication, honestly, just like the rest of the world of appearances. Death is a worse offender in my opinion, though, because the only thing that separates us from a "dead state" is a lack of conscious states. Many people think that we are conscious states, rather than that we have them. It's a bit like the idea of the soul in that there is no reason to suppose a separate mind with perfect continuity, and all evidence suggests the opposite, but we still cling to it as a final vestige of folk psychology.
I was always wondering why all these star freaks obsess over the cosmos.
What is so interesting about space?
At best its a meaningless expanse full of dead rocks and deadly dangers.
Deadly radiation from stars, pulsars and other galactic crap.
Gigantic gravity well of meaninglessness like gas giants and black holes.
Dead rock and chemicals some so cold they kill everything others so hot they burn everything to death.
The universe seams to be a insignificant expanse and the human experience seams far to incredible to waste it over watching pointless chemicals and rocks.
What is there to gain in the universe?
At best you will see a planet with a different collaring do to some chemicals.
What is so interesting about it? You can get the same by simply putting some colored glasses and fiction (films, comics) have provided far more interesting vistas to see.
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>At best you will see a planet with a different collaring do to some chemicals.
At best we'll find another intelligent civilization.
>At best we'll find another intelligent civilization.
Why be sad about not getting to explore space?
This is the question.
what do you think?
The school of recovery is two parts of both kinds of psych quackeries. psychology and psychiatry. All they really prove is that people still begin to avoid certain behaviors the longer they are locked up for it.
Devil is Terrorism
well, since you didn't explain anything about your idea, I don't think anything of it
Is there really a right and wrong?
personally I believe that there is none, life is pointless.
Life doesn't need a purpose for there to be rights and wrongs within it.
I think of this world like a game. For example, in Monopoly, when it's all said and done, it doesn't really matter who won or lost or even how the game went, because it's over. But that doesn't change the fact that you're an ass for targeting one player and making him go bankrupt first.
Maybe I'm wrong, but I think life does have a purpose. The world isn't pure entropy, there's a reason things happen, even if it isn't a good reason.
Nothing really matters, but the universe follows natural tendencies eg. evolution.
Much like the birds invented wings to catch shit to eat and escape shit that wants to eat them, we invented "Hey, let's not kill each other" so we could go down to the corner store without a bunch of buddies and their pointiest sticks.
Morality improves the utility of society, so we evolved into it
If you believe there's a god or something alike (I do), then no, there ain't no right or wrong outside of our limited comprehension of the whole, for everything happens in accordance to the needs of the entire universe.
If you don't believe there's one, and that the whole of existence ain't nothing but the result of the chaotic development of events starting with the big bang, then how the fuck could there be something right or wrong in the middle of such nonsense.
So no, there's no such thing.
This doesn't mean you gotta act like a jerk, do what's best for the community you live in and lead a reasonable and humble life. Just in case, you know.